matematicas visuales visual math

The paper we usually use has a standar size. In lots of countries in the world (but not in North America) we use paper size standars based in ISO 216 and we use world like DIN A0, DIN A1, DIN A2, DIN A3, DIN A4 an so on.

The base DIN A0 size of paper is defined to have an area of one square meter, and successive paper sizes in the series A1, A2, A3, A4, and so forth, are defined by halving the preceding paper size along the larger dimension. The objective is that this parts again have the same aspect ratio.

We can calculate this aspect ratio:

Din A ratio sqrt(2) | matematicasvisuales

The aspect ratio verifies (these two rectangles are similar):

Then

Or

Then the larger side is equal to the diagonal of a square of size the shorter side:

Din A: the larger side is sqrt(2).the shorter side | matematicasvisuales

DIN A0 size has one square meter. We can calculate his dimensions (rounded to milimeters)

In a photocopier, when we want to reduce from A3 to A4 the display shows a ratio of 71%. ¿Why?

Reducing the size from Din A3 to Din A4. Why it is 71% | matematicasvisuales

I have used this proportion in the animation about the sum of the geometric series of ratio 1/2.

The doors of this piece of furniture are in the same proportion. It has been designed and made by Roberto Cardil using pine and oak wood. You can see another furniture with the golden spiral.

Piece of furniture with doors in proportion as DIN A (square root of 2) | matematicasvisuales

This proportion is different than the golden proportion.

Now we are going to see more facts about this rectangle.

Remember that the diagonal of a square is:

DIN A ratio: trigonometry, angles | matematicasvisuales

Then we can find our rectangle as a section of a cube:

DIN A ratio: trigonometry, angles | matematicasvisuales

One diagonal of this rectangle:

DIN A ratio: trigonometry, angles | matematicasvisuales
DIN A ratio: trigonometry, angles | matematicasvisuales

You can calculate D as a basic application of the Pythagorean Theorem:

DIN A ratio: trigonometry, angles | matematicasvisuales

If we consider the two diagonals of this section, the point of intersection is the center of the cube:

DIN A ratio: trigonometry, angles | matematicasvisuales

Now we are going to study the angles between the two diagonals (we need some basic knowledge about trigonometry):

DIN A ratio: trigonometry, angles | matematicasvisuales

DIN A ratio: trigonometry, angles | matematicasvisuales

Angle C is easy to calculate:

DIN A ratio: trigonometry, angles | matematicasvisuales

Also

DIN A ratio: trigonometry, angles | matematicasvisuales

We are going to meet these two angles when we study the chamfered cube and the rhombic dodecahedron because our rectangle is related with these polyhedra.

Rhombic Dodecahedron (6): A Rhombic Dodecahedron inside and outside a cube
A chain of six pyramids can be turned inwards to form a cube or turned outwards, placed over another cube to form the rhombic dodecahedron.
Chamfered Cube
You can chamfer a cube and then you get a polyhedron similar (but not equal) to a truncated octahedron. You can get also a rhombic dodecahedron.


Another approach to find angle A:

DIN A ratio: trigonometry, angles | matematicasvisuales

Can you explain it?

First, lines PR and QT are perpendicular because if we rotate 90 degrees counterclockwise the rectangle ....

Proporción DIN A: trigonometria, ángulos | matematicasvisuales

Second, lines PR and QT are two medians of triangle QRS, then the centroid divide ...

Now you can write cosA ...

MORE LINKS

Pythagoras Theorem: Euclid's demonstration
Demonstration of Pythagoras Theorem inspired in Euclid.
Chamfered Cube
You can chamfer a cube and then you get a polyhedron similar (but not equal) to a truncated octahedron. You can get also a rhombic dodecahedron.
Sum of a geometric series of ratio 1/2
The geometric series of ratio 1/2 is convergent. We can represent this series using a rectangle and cut it in half successively. Here we use a rectangle such us all rectangles are similar.
The golden rectangle
A golden rectangle is made of an square and another golden rectangle.
The golden rectangle and the dilative rotation
A golden rectangle is made of an square an another golden rectangle. These rectangles are related through an dilative rotation.
Sum of a geometric series of ratio 1/4
One intuitive example of how to sum a geometric series. A geometric series of ratio less than 1 is convergent.
Rhombic Dodecahedron (4): Rhombic Dodecahedron made of a cube and six sixth of a cube
You can build a Rhombic Dodecahedron adding six pyramids to a cube. This fact has several interesting consequences.
Rhombic Dodecahedron (5): Rhombic Dodecahedron is a space filling polyhedron
The Rhombic Dodecahedron fills the space without gaps.
Rhombic Dodecahedron (1): honeycombs
Humankind has always been fascinated by how bees build their honeycombs. Kepler related honeycombs with a polyhedron called Rhombic Dodecahedron.
Rhombic Dodecahedron (2): honeycomb minima property
We want to close a hexagonal prism as bees do, using three rhombi. Then, which is the shape of these three rhombi that closes the prism with the minimum surface area?.
Rhombic Dodecahedron (3): Augmented cube
Adding six pyramids to a cube you can build new polyhedra with twenty four triangular faces. For specific pyramids you get a Rhombic Dodecahedron that has twelve rhombic faces.
Augmented Rhombicuboctahedron
Starting with a Rhombicubotahedron we can add pyramids over each face. The we get a beautiful polyhedron that it is like a star.
Construcción de poliedros. Cuboctaedro y dodecaedro rómbico: Taller de Talento Matemático de Zaragoza 2014 (Spanish)
Material for a session about polyhedra (Zaragoza, 9th May 2014). Simple techniques to build polyhedra like the tetrahedron, octahedron, the cuboctahedron and the rhombic dodecahedron. We can build a box that is a rhombic dodecahedron.
The Dodecahedron and the Cube
A Cube can be inscribed in a Dodecahedron. A Dodecahedron can be seen as a cube with six 'roofs'. You can fold a dodecahedron into a cube.
Leonardo da Vinci: Drawing of a cuboctahedron made to Luca Pacioli's De divina proportione.
Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of polyhedra for Luca Pacioli's book 'De divina proportione'. Here we can see an adaptation of the cuboctahedron.
The volume of a cuboctahedron
A cuboctahedron is an Archimedean solid. It can be seen as made by cutting off the corners of a cube.
The volume of a cuboctahedron (II)
A cuboctahedron is an Archimedean solid. It can be seen as made by cutting off the corners of an octahedron.